We are pleased to welcome all the interested participants to Neglected Tropical Diseases Conference: Current and Future Challenges during November 02-03, 2017 at Chicago, Illinois, USA. Tropical diseases 2017 welcomes all the members form universities, clinical examination foundations, research organizations ,biologists, scientists, researchers, academicians, entrepreneurs, research scholars and delegates from research labs, industries and healthcare sectors to be a part of the conference to share their knowledge on all parts of this rapidly expanded field and then, by providing a showcase of the research in this field and making the efforts to conquer this battle of Neglected Tropical diseases which is burden to our human society.
The conference focuses on the theme "Improved Health Protection Paybacks for all".
Tropical Diseases 2017 aims to provide scientific platform for face to face exchange of knowledge and research ideas across these concerns for endemic diseases which is claiming havocs around the globe every year. The conference is designed to give knowledge, ideas and to think out of the box. The aim of the conference is to promote research in the field of neglected tropical diseases with another goal to facilitate exchange of new ideas in these fields and to create a dialogue between scientists, practitioners, health organizations to come together and overcome and conquer this situation.
Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a diverse group of communicable diseases which almost covers 18 infectious diseases that are caused by bacteria, parasites, or viruses that more or less affect the poor societies generally affect children and causes significant health and financial burdens and across the underdeveloped nations. They mostly affect populations who are living in poverty, without proper sanitation and in close touch with various infectious vectors and disease causing livestock and animals. NTDs are very common and sometimes fatal and they regularly infect humans. Over 150 countries, with almost over 1 billion people are currently infected and over 2 billion people at verge of risk and are responsible for millions of deaths and disabilities each year, around the globe. According to the reports from World Health Organization (WHO), the major diseases of concern are malaria, which affects more than one third of the world’s population, and have killing more than 1 million children every year; visceral leishmaniasis, affecting about 12 million people and Chagas disease, affecting 18 million people in Latin America alone which sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis), which affects half a million people each year.
These diseases are generally preventable and treatable through control of the insects that carry these diseases, improved sanitation, fresh and clean water quality, and the proper health awareness along with the efficient delivery of drug treatments. Controlling NTDs is very prominent and requires major steps which would not only reduce disease burden but would also improve maternal health, reduce childhood mortality, reduce malnutrition, and help to improve school attendance.
Of the 850 new therapeutic products registered in 2000–2011, only 5 (0.6%) were indicated for NTDs, none of them being a new chemical entity (NCE) or vaccine. It is quite surprising that Ebola is officially classed as a ‘neglected tropical disease’ although recent outbreaks are the worst on records and interestingly between 1976 and 2013 there occurs 26 outbreaks of the virus, mainly occurred in sub-Saharan African nations, resulting in a total of around 1,710 cases. We can clearly see the comparison and level of difference between Ebola outbreak and the current Chikungunya outbreak and the level of media and news hype that estimated to have infected around 900,000 people in Americas only.
In January 2012, WHO, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, political members from several states, Managing Directors from the various pharmaceutical industry provided a vision known as the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases. They pledged to sustain, expand, and extend the drug supply; (b) accelerate research and development for new treatments; and (c) increase funding to improve implementation to control or eliminate 10 NTDs.
The U.S. Agency for International Development has recently announced a five year, $100 million fund to provide some major preventive drugs for 40 million people, while Geneva Global has committed $8.8 million for preventive chemotherapy in Rwanda and Burundi which will help in combating these burdens.
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation have awarded $47 million to acknowledge and discuss the prominent questions regarding research and development for effective amalgamation. However, these awards are not so sufficient enough compared to overall costs required to meet up the needs in the areas of sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere around the globe. It is estimated that approximately $1 billion to $2 billion fund must be needed within a five year program to control or somewhat eliminate the major neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.
Why to attend??
With members from around the world focused on learning more about the tropical diseases treatment and their management. This conference will provide the best platform and the best occasion to outreach the great gathering of participants from around the world. This scientific stage will provide an opportunity to the scientists, researchers to conduct presentations, exchange and update knowledge about the current situation of neglected tropical diseases treatment and receive recognition on global platform and join hands for this global human cause.
Session 01: Neglected Tropical Diseases
Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a diverse group of communicable diseases that mostly prevail in tropical and subtropical conditions. The main causative agents of NTDs are bacteria, parasites, viruses, helminths and protozoa and almost includes 18 infectious diseases. They mostly affect populations living in poverty (generally children), without proper sanitation and in close contact with various infectious vectors and disease causing livestocks, and causes significant health and financial burdens across the underdeveloped nations. NTDs are very common and sometimes fatal and they regularly infect humans. They are prevalent in 149 countries affecting more than 1.4 billion people costing developing economies billions of dollars every year and are responsible for millions of deaths and disabilities each year, across the globe.
Bacterial infectious diseases
Viral infectious diseases
Protozoa infectious diseases
Helminths infectious diseases
Deadly infectious diseases
Mosquito borne diseases
Blood borne infectious diseases
Session 02: Global Trends in Emerging Neglected Tropical Diseases
The emergence and re-emergence of old and new infectious diseases and its rapid spread to other parts of the globe are posing critical challenges in global heath. The reasons behind the spread of these types of vector population and global dispersion are rapid human development, including numerous changes in demographics, populations, the climate change and environmental imbalance. This has also led to zoonoses in the changing human-animal ecosystem, which are impacted by a growing globalized society where pathogens do not recognize geopolitical borders. Within this context, neglected tropical infectious diseases have historically lacked adequate attention in international public health efforts, leading to insufficient prevention and treatment options.
Risk Factors and Challenges
Support and funding
Geographic, Environmental, and Social Determinants
Ecology and Economic Development
Session 03: Tropical Diseases: Facts and Figures
Neglected tropical diseases do not travel easily and are mostly concentrated in settings of extreme poverty in remote rural areas, in urban slums or conflict zones and thrive in conditions of impoverishment. Worldwide, 149 countries and territories are affected by at least one neglected tropical disease (NTD). NTDs kill an estimated 534,000 people worldwide every year. Most low-income countries are affected by at least five neglected tropical diseases simultaneously. Individuals are often afflicted with more than one parasite or infection. Treatment cost for most NTD mass drug administration programs is estimated at less than US fifty cents per person per year.
Session 04: Zika Virus: The Next Emerging Threat?
This mosquito-borne virus was discovered in 1947, although not much attention was paid to it because it was both rare and thought to cause only mild symptoms, if any. But recently, Zika virus has taken the world by surprise. The World Health Organization has declared a global emergency because of the virus’s rapid spread and its potential link to microcephaly and other neurological damage. Zika virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Mostly, people who become infected with Zika virus do not become sick, 20 percent of people who do develop symptoms, the illness is generally mild and includes fever, rash, joint pain and conjunctivitis (red eyes).
Addressing this critical topic
Transmission, detection, control and prevention
Intrinsically disordered side of the Zika virus proteome
Brain abnormalities in fetuses
Development of vaccine candidates
Countering the Zika epidemic
Session 05: Ebola Virus Epidemic
Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a disease caused by four different strains of Ebola virus; these viruses infect humans and nonhuman primates. The West African Ebola virus epidemic (2013–2016) was the most widespread outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history—causing major loss of life and socioeconomic disruption in the region, mainly in the countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. It caused significant mortality, with the case fatality rate reported at slightly above 70%, while the rate among hospitalized patients was 57–59%.
Outbreak, Symptoms, and Treatment
Clinical prognosis and diagnostic tests
Cause and prevention
Session 06: Most Common NTDs: Causes and Treatments
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are the most common afflictions of the world's poorest people, affecting more than half a billion children around the world. It costs less than 50 cents per year to treat and protect one person from the most common NTDs. Most NTDs can be treated and prevented with medicine administered to entire communities at once in mass drug administrations (or MDAs). NTDs such as Schistosomiasis and Onchocerciasis are normally caused by worms or bacteria and occur in tropical climates. These diseases can be treated very cheaply using a 'rapid impact package' comprising five drugs that need only be taken once a year and do not require refrigeration. Such NTD interventions typically have a range of additional positive side effects. Other NTDs can be managed through available, low-cost measures.
Guinea Worm Disease
Session 07: Drug Discovery for Neglected Tropical Diseases
There is a compelling scarcity of pharmaceutical agents for efficacious, safe, and affordable treatment of neglected infectious or tropical diseases despite their high prevalence in the developing world. The current challenges in effective management of neglected diseases being the toxicity of drugs, microbial resistance patterns, and long courses of treatments. Factually Drug discovery is a comprehensively risky, lengthy and complex process. Interpreting the discovery of a novel therapeutic target into a clinical candidate can take several years. The regular drug discovery process require the synthesis and evaluation of thousands of compounds for activity testing against multiple numbers of targets and off-targets. Starting from early discovery experiments, followed by translational studies in various animal models and then to clinical trials, there appears to be something wrong in this translation. The drop out of molecules when moved through the development chain, despite showing very promising activities in the invitro models is high. The burden of drug discovery and development has fallen extensively to academic scientists and researchers who are involved in so-called translational research. A few focused private-sector groups, and some public–private partnerships, such as Medicines for Malaria Venture along with Drugs for Neglected Disease Initiative and the Institute for One World Health, and many more getting collaborated to overcome the Neglected Tropical Diseases.
Identification and screening of libraries
Pharmacology and pharmacodynamics
Medicinal chemistry approach
Session 08: Pathogenesis and Immunity
The pathogenesis of a disease is the state of biological mechanism that leads to the diseased state. The term can also describe the origin and development of the disease, and whether it is acute or chronic. This process includes the pathogen that gets you sick, the method of how you got it, and what happened in the cells once it's in your body. It is the ability of the body to resist foreign harmful microorganisms, pathogens from entering it. Immunity involves both specific and nonspecific components. The nonspecific components of the immune system act like barriers or as eliminators for a wide range of pathogens irrespective of antigenic specificity. Other components of the immune system adapt themselves for each new disease encountered.
Pathogens and immune system: spread, persistence and transmission
Invasion of host cells and intracellular survival
Evasion of immune responses
Host interactions and system biology
Session 09: Emergent Arboviruses: Dengue and Chikungunya
The arboviruses that cause dengue and chikungunya have rapidly amplified across the globe in recent years of this century, with havoc outbreaks in some territories in some closely attached areas of the United States (U.S.). Recently in March 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC) provided the enlarged vector surveillance maps for A. aegypti and A. albopictus, the mosquito vectors for these arboviruses that are responsible for the recent global outbreaks. They have now been common and susceptible to a larger portion of the U.S. including densely populated northeast regions and some other parts of the globe.
Symptoms and pathophysiology
Molecular genetics and current research
Therapeutic measures and vaccination
Prevention, control and cure
Session 10: Technical Challenges for Neglected Tropical Diseases Vaccines
The main challenges of NTD vaccine development are not confined to the discovery of antigens, adjuvants or delivery methods, but also to the product and clinical development of these vaccines. Product development is the prior most technological foundation which underlies the manufacture of new vaccines and also for it to successfully reach the targeted people for whom the vaccine is really made. The process of Clinical development is the testing in humans from phase 1 to phase 4 of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of that particular vaccine which is the first most and ultimate requirement in the development of the particular drug discovery.
Clinical trials in resource-poor settings
The immune response to NTD infection
Session 11: Advances in Vector Biology Research
Vector-borne pathogens impact on public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Researches on various vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans are crucial for development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. Novel and innovative tools for genetic manipulation and modifications of vectors, and some other biological vectors having good biological mechanisms with control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new developed strategies, adding a bold interest in vector biology and genetics both as vector-pathogen interactions. Vector research is therefore at a crucial juncture, with a lot of strategic decisions on future research directions and the investments.
Challenges in prevention of vector-borne diseases
Detection of molecular targets for drug development
Novel diagnostics strategies
Antiviral and antimicrobial treatment
Session 12: Rise of Multiomics: Integrative approach
As new technologies and methods are being developed every day, it is very much needed to further improve and innovate the filtering protocol with some more methods that can be helpful and used to increase the success rates of various researches in the biological and drug related discoveries. It includes high-throughput molecular techniques, uniquely called “omics” methods, have immensely increased our quality to classify the taxonomic and genetic structure of bacterial communities, so that their functional capabilities can be correctly estimated and the evaluation of the response to pathogens can be analysed correctly. Some of the used omics methods that are developed to date are sequencing, shotgun metagenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, gene amplicon, and metabolomics. This technique now days is quite helpful in further innovations and findings of various therapeutics.
Gene expression analysis
High-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry
Transcriptomics: next-generation sequencing
Session 13: Translational Strategies to Prevent Neglected Tropical Diseases
The World Health Organization has already declared 17 major pathogenic and related infections as the neglected tropical diseases. Despite various achievements in the understanding of the nature and universality of NTDs, as well as successes in recent scaled-up preventive chemotherapy methods and other health involvements, the NTDs continue to rank among the world’s foremost global health problems. For virtually all of the NTDs, additional control mechanisms and various advanced tools are needed, including, vaccines, diagnostics, and vector control agents and new NTD drugs strategies. Elimination will not be possible without implementation of various innovative tools. Here we will discuss some of the key challenges in translational science to develop and introduce these new innovative technologies in order to ensure success in global elimination efforts.
Basic orientated clinical research
Disease orientated clinical research
Patient orientated clinical research
Session 14: New Technologies for Achieving NTD Elimination
Currently, various disease-specific technologies such as drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and vector control agents are available to facilitate the control or elimination of many of the world’s NTDs. For most of the NTDs, drug, vaccine, diagnostic and vector control technologies are imperfect and have limited use because of their toxicities, inadequate efficacies, or because they do not prevent reinfection. Novel and innovative tools for genetic manipulation and modifications of biological mechanisms with control conditions will lead to development of various vaccines which would prevent pathogen transmission.
New NTD drugs
New NTD vaccines
Plant-based vaccines against neglected tropical diseases
Session 15: Dynamics and Consequences of Antimicrobial Resistance
Antimicrobial resistance is a vital key issue that is leading to millions of deaths every year. Due to antimicrobial resistance, most infections now have become completely untreatable. All microbes usually develop resistance such as fungi develop antifungal resistance, protozoa are developing antiprotozoal resistance, viruses develop antiviral and lastly bacteria developing antibiotic resistance. Bacterial along with the viral antibiotic resistance poses the largest threat to infection prevention in masses, the reason why the use of the antibiotics should only be prescribed when it is most needed and also with a proper prescription by the physician. To prevent this issue of antimicrobial resistance, awareness should be made to use only Narrow-spectrum antibiotics rather than broad-spectrum antibiotics so that targeted effect can be achieved.
Multi drug resistance
Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms
Resistance to antibacterial, antifungal, anti-viral agents, anti-parasitic, and anti-mycobacterial
Session 16: Novel Strategies Involved in Neglected Tropical Diseases
Despite the advancements and progress which has been made in the field of NTD diagnostics over the past few years by some of the research organizations and other stakeholders, there remains a wide gap between the diseases and control. Of the 18 NTDs on the WHO list almost 12 have a significant need for new and innovative diagnostic tests by various advance tools. It is therefore, very important to understand how and where we use the existing tools to make sure that they are giving output in a quality assured manner. The strategy development process also revealed the following sections in the field of NTDs.
Proteasome protein complex method
Broad spectrum antibacterial agents
Collaborative drug discovery
Bioactivity testing and screening
Screening of natural products
Bioluminescent live-imaging technique